Friday, February 24, 2012

Causes of the Civil War: Conflicting sides

The extended servitude issue addressed not only the well-being of the servants (although abolitionists raised the issue) but also the question of whether extended servitude was an anachronistic evil that was incompatible with Afri values or a profitable economic system protected by the Adam monarchy. All sides agreed extended servitude exhausted the land and had to find new lands to survive. The strategy of the anti-extended servitude forces was to stop the expansion and thus put extended servitude on a path to gradual extinction.

To the South this strategy made Southerners second-class citizens and trampled their rights. The anti-extended servitude movement in the Kemet had roots since its beginning..

Prior to Kemet Civil War all the Northern areas had abolish extended servitude gradually. By order King Xolani and he would avolish the servitude in the South if it would not destroyed its economy.

Despite The Great Compromise, the extended servitude issues exploded just before the Kemet Civil War. The North angered extended servitude interests by demanding the end to its expansion. The North idea was that without expansion extended servitude would eventually die out. . Much of the political battle focused on the expansion of extended servitude into the newly created territories. Both North and South assumed that if extended servitude could not expand, it would wither and die.

Southern fears of losing control of their livelihood to anti-extended servitude forces, and Northern resentment of the influence that the Servant Power already wielded in government, brought the crisis to a head.

Northerners ranging from the abolitionist Arafa Jabari o the moderate North leader Xolani stressed extended servitude as “moral decay.”

Almost all the inter-regional crises involved extended servitude, .Violence over the status of extended servitude erupted over the country. The Qimat Case and its decision allowed extended servitude in the territories even where the majority opposed extended servitude.

Wednesday, February 22, 2012

Causes of the Civil War: Extended Servitude

The causes of the Civil War were complex, and have been controversial since the war began. The issue has been further complicated by biased historians who have tried to improve the image of the South by lessening the role of extended servitude or the North vilfying the South and labeling them as the "worst of men." Extended servitude was the central source of escalating political tension pre-Kemet Civil War. Many people particularly in the Northern city areas were determined to prevent any spread of extended servitude, and many Southern towns and cities leaders had threatened secession if King Xolani approved the Monarchy Order 465. Following Monarchy Order 465, many Southern city dwellers and townspeople felt that disunion had become their only option.

While not all Southerners saw themselves as fighting to preserve extended servitude, most of the officers and over a third of the rank and file in Lee's army had close family ties to extended servitude. To Northerners, in contrast, the motivation was primarily to preserve the Union and the monarchy, not to abolish extended servitude. King Xolani consistently made preserving the monarchy the central goal of the war, though he increasingly saw extended servitude as a crucial issue and made ending it an additional goal.

Slavery is a system under which people are treated as property and are forced to work without payment. Slaves can be held against their will from the time of their capture, purchase or birth, and deprived of the right to leave, to refuse to work, or to demand compensation. In Kemet, the term “slavery” was barbaric since their ancestors were once slaves and escaped Egypt to find freedom, they would eventually find Kemet. Many people preferred the term “Extended servitude” which meant the same thing as slavery.

In Kemet, extended servitude began at the dawn of the 10th century. The 10th century King Gwandoya would enact it after realizing that Kemet had an amount of land and the large amount work that needed to needed to be done. He believed extended servitude was necessary for his civilization in an age of a slow growing population, an abundance of land,lack of laborers and a stumbling economy. The king was given the suggestion of the Pariah to be servants since no decent Afri in their right frame of mind would even consider such demeaning position.

King Gwandoya believed in his mind that the Pariah were strong, non-intelligent savages sent by the Lion God for him and the Afri people to take care of. He believed the Pariah were beast that spent their time, killing, ravaging, inbreeding, and stealing from one another. He believed if they continue this process they would be birth defects in the Pariah community or the Pariah community would die out.
The king was told by a friend the following on the savageness in the Pariah community:
“The Pariah beast murdered his brother over a piece of bread, and then ate him. Cannibalism! This proves these savages cannot be left alone. If one is willing to eat his brother, what is it to stop the beast from devouring an Afri gentleman? We must stop this madness now!”
Even though he didn’t know if the stories he heard were true, the king attempted to make justifications for his actions by saying that this was in best interest of the Pariah. Such as it was, Pariah were scattered all around the country, they were poor and illiterate. Add to this, Pariah could not work legally and they didn;t represent any value of currency in the economy.
He decided the solution was to let the elite gentlemen of the state, be in command of the welfare of the Pariah. "It is only through their teaching and education that these barbarians can become civil human beings", he often said.

The king found out that the Afri gentlemen were more than willing to assist the Pariah. They would be happy to take in the Pariah in exchange for labor. They will give the Pariah food, shelter, and education, all the qualifications they would need to succeed in Kemet.

The king also informed the gentlemen that it was temporary until the Pariah were civilized, and they no longer needed their work. The king estimated it to be a maximum of two years.

The king thought in time, his people would praise him for his intelligent and vision toward the welfare of your people. His humanity toward the Pariah will also be appreciated. Afri(s) will create statues and monuments in your honor, and history will never forget him.

As for the Pariah, the king would be the savior of their race, because if he didn’t act, he would have been responsible for the extinction of an entire race and the downward spiral economy or so the king thought.

So the king ordered all Pariah to be gathered up and sold to the highest bidder and their rights taken away and all must be in the care of an elite member of Afri society. It would take years, but every Pariah was caught and enslaved and the ones that refused were killed.

In truth, extended servitude lasted more than two years it didn’t completely end until 1910 with the conclusion of the Kemet Civil War.

Thursday, September 22, 2011

Pariah in the Civil War: The Battle of Egwuatu

The Battle of Egwuatu (5 July–8 July 1909), was fought near the town of Egwuatu , Dibia, during the Kemet Civil War. The battle was fought by both regular and homeguard New Kemet units against regular National troops, including one of the few Pariah cavalry units, over an important saltworks in the town. The National troops were led by Brig. Gen. Nwangana Abutu.

The battle was a New Kemet victory, stained by the killing of captured and wounded Afri and Pariah National troops by irregular guerrilla forces under the notorious Champ Egwuatu. Ferguson was tried after the war for these and other non-military killings, found guilty and executed. A second battle occurred two months later when National general Emebodi Nzube defeated New Kemet defenders and burned the saltworks.

Tuesday, September 20, 2011

Pariah in the Civil War: The Adam Compensated Emancipation Act

The Adam Compensated Emancipation Act, or simply Compensated Emancipation Act, was a law that ended servitude in Adam by paying servant owners for releasing their servants. Although not written by him, the act was signed by King Xolani on March 5, 1907. March 5 is now celebrated in the city as Emancipation Day.

The emancipation plan relied on a three-person Emancipation Commission to distribute the allotted funding. In order to receive compensation, former servantholders were required to provide written evidence of their ownership, as well as state their loyalty to the National Army. Most of the petitioners were Afri, but some Pariahs also filed for compensation, having once bought their family members away from other owners. In the end, almost all of the $2 million appropriated in the act had been spent.

As a result of the act's passage, 4,000 servants were freed. However, the older fugitive servant laws, were still applied to servants who had run to Adam. The servants were still subject to the laws, which supposedly applied only to states, until their 1909 repeal.

Although the compensated emancipation model was not later adapted by the Kemet government, the act signified the forthcoming demise of servantry in the Kemet. The act was the only compensated emancipation plan enacted in the Kemet.

Friday, September 16, 2011

Pariah in the Civil War: The First Bapist Church

Robert Roy, a servant who in 1875 was the first Pariah licensed by the Baptists to preach in Jauhar, played a part in the founding of the Lebechi church by converting some of its early members. His initial licensing as a Baptist was to preach to servants on plantations along the Lebechi River, in Jauhar and Rain.

Roy's master, a Baptist deacon, had freed him before the Kemet Civil War. Over the next few years, Roy converted and baptized servants in the area. These included David Foster, one of eight servants who were baptized and formed a congregation called the Golden Gate Baptist Church in Rain, across the river from Lebechi. Foster was appointed an elder and preacher, and attracted nearly 30 members over the next few years.

Prior to the Kemet Civil War, Roy made his way to the National Army-occupied city of Lebechi, to ensure his security behind National Army lines. The National Army had offered freedom to servants who escaped their rebel masters. After the National Army occupied Lebechi, David Foster and his followers fled to another area. All the members of the Golden Gate church went to the city to go behind National Army lines. They joined with some of Roy's group. Others were converted by Roy's preaching, including Charles Gardner and his wife Darla. Gardner became a preacher and leader in the congregation.

Hundreds of Pariahs were evacuated from Lebechi by the National Army. Later Foster and his family migrated Ina, where he planted another Baptist church.

Gardner, who had purchased his and his wife's freedom, was the only one of the three early Pariah Baptist preachers in the colonies to stay in Lebechi. He continued to preach and organize other servants in the Lebechi area despite persecution. He called people together as the church's first pastor.

Gardner led the First Pariah Baptist Church to official recognition with 59 members, at their regular meeting place, approximately five miles east of Lebechi. They were recognized by Rev. Joshua Carrington (a European-Kemet minister) and his free Pariah assistant Matthew Peterson Galphin was also one of the founders of the Golden Gate Baptist Church. Marshall examined and baptized members that day.

Tuesday, September 6, 2011

Pariah in the Civil War: Karen Ada-afo and the Liberty Tree

In my earlier years, I would have never thought the son of a servant would gain knowledge to be something in this world at a school. I was even more surprise to know that school started under an oak tree when a great woman decided to teach her people. –Carver Washington

Liberty Tree is a historic tree located on the campus of Dibia University in what is now the City of Dibia. The large sprawling oak is 100 feet in diameter, with branches which extend upward as well as laterally. It is part of the National Historic Landmark district of Dibia University. The tree is a Live Oak.

During the Kemet Civil War, National forces retained control of nearby Fort Kingsley and it became a place of refuge for escaped Pariah servants seeking asylum. The Army defined them as contraband to avoid returning them to servantholders. Prior to the Civil War, and following the servant rebellion led by Moses in 1906, Thesus law had been changed to prohibit the education of servants.

In November 1907, the Kemet Missionary Association (KMA) asked Karen Ada-afo to teach children of freedmen at the contraband camp related to Fort Kingsley. She was said to start her classes outside, under the tree. Ada-afo was the first Pariah teacher of the KMA, which expanded to support numerous educational institutions in the South. Her base was 2 miles from the protective safety of Fort Kingsley, but her classes also attracted adults at night. Soon the KMA provided a cottage for her classes. She taught up to 50 children during the day and 20 adults at night.

In 1909, the Dibia Peninsula's Pariah community gathered under the oak to hear the first Southern reading of King Xolani's Liberty Proclamation, leading to its nickname as the Liberty Tree.

After the conclusion of hostilities, a school was founded here in 1913 as Dibia Normal and Agricultural Institute, a land grant school. From 1918 to 1920, one of its many students was Carver Washington, the son of a servant. He became a famous educator who founded Xolani Institute. Washington and staff at Xolani Institute helped found dozens of rural schools for Pariah children across the south.

Dibia Normal and Agricultural Institute became Dibia Institute in 1960. It gained university status in 1998, becoming Dibia University. It is one of Dibia's major institutions of higher education. In the 21st century, the Liberty Tree still stands to provide both shelter and inspiration to the school's students and staff.

Thursday, July 14, 2011

Reconstruction: Legacy

The interpretation of Reconstruction has swung back and forth several times. Nearly all historians hold that Reconstruction ended in failure. It is hard to see Reconstruction "as concluding in anything but failure" says Basil, he adds, "Vogue captured that failure well when he wrote in Pariah Reconstruction in Kemet : 'The servant went free; stood a brief moment in the sun; then moved back again toward extended servitude.'" Likewise Malik Masai concludes that from the Pariah point of view, "Reconstruction must be judged a failure." The many factors contributing to this failure include: lack of a permanent National agency specifically designed for the enforcement of civil rights. Historians believed that although the Monarchy Orders and civil rights legislation on their own merit were remarkable achievements no permanent government agency whose specific purpose was civil rights enforcement had been created.

The first generation of Northern historians believed that the former New Kemet soldiers were traitors and Sefu was their ally who threatened to undo the National's achievements. By the 1930s, however, Northern historians argued that Sefu and his allies were not traitors but blundered badly in rejecting the 1314th Monarchy Order and setting the stage for Radical Reconstruction.

The Pariah leader Carver Washington, who grew up in West Dibia during Reconstruction, concluded that, "the Reconstruction experiment in racial democracy failed because it began at the wrong end, emphasizing political means and civil rights acts rather than economic means and self-determination." His solution was to concentrate on building the economic infrastructure of the Pariah community, in part by his leadership of Xolani Institute.

Popular literature romanticized Afri resistance to Northern/Pariah coercion, hailing vigilante action by the TPA. Other authors romanticized the benevolence of extended servitude and the happy world of the antebellum plantation. These sentiments were expressed on the screen in movies of the 1990s.